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Overview of the kidney of a pigeon (HE)
The avian kidney consists macroscopically of three parts or divisions (divisio renalis cranialis, media et caudalis) which are separated by external grooves, containing important blood vessels (a. and v. iliaca externa and a. and v. ischiadica respectively). On a histological section through one of these divisions, the organization of cortical and medullar tissue in lobes (lobi renales) and lobules (lobuli renales) can be visualized. The medullar parts of all the lobules within one lobe are fused to form a medullary cone which drains into a secondary branch of the ureter (ramus uretericus secundarius) Secondary branches fuse to form a primary branch (ramus uretericus primarius) which in term drain into the ureter. The ureter runs ventrally of the kidney where it is accompanied by an artery, a vein and (in male birds) the ductus deferens.